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Communicable and Infectious Diseases

Rubeola (Measles)

The causative agent is a virus. The incubation period is between 10 to 20 days. The communicability period is from four days before to 5 days after the rash appears.

It is transmitted through respiratory tract secretions, blood and urine of infected person. It is airborne or direct contact with the infectious droplet.

Signs and symptoms include fever, malaise, coryza and cough. The rash appears as red, discrete maculopapules that blanch easily with pressure and gradually turn a brownish color lasting for 6 to 7 days. The rash begins behind the ears and spreads downward to the feet.

Rubella (German Measles)

Communicable and Infectious DiseasesThe causative agent of German measles is rubella virus. The incubation period is between 14 to 21 days. The communicability period is 7 days before to about 5 days after the rash appears.

It is transmitted through nasopharyngeal secretions. The virus is also present in blood, stool, and urine. The mode of transmission is by airborne or direct contact with infectious droplets. It can also be transmitted via indirect contamination by articles freshly contaminated with nasopharyngeal secretions, feces, or urine.

The signs and symptoms include low grade fever, malaise, pinkish red maculopapular rash that begins on the face and spreads to the entire body. Petechial spots may occur on the soft palate.

Mumps

The causative agent of mumps is paramyxovirus. The incubation period is 14 to 21 days. The communicability period is immediately before and after the swelling begins. The source of infection is the saliva of infected person and possibly urine.

It is transmitted through direct contact with infected person and droplet spread from infected person.

Signs and symptoms include fever, headache, malaise, anorexia, and earache aggravated by chewing, followed by parotid glandular swelling.

Chickenpox (Varicella)

The causative agent of chicken pox is varicella-zoster virus. The incubation period is between 13 to 17 days. The communicability period is 1 to 2 days before the onset of the rash to 6 days after the first crop of vesicles, when crusts have formed. The source of infection is respiratory tract secretions of infected person or skin lesions.

It is transmitted through direct contact, droplet or airborne spread and contaminated objects.

The signs and symptoms include slight fever, malaise, and anorexia followed by a macular rash that first appears on the trunk and scalp and moves to the extremities. The lesions become pustules, begin to dry and develop a crust. The lesions may appear on the mucous membranes of the mouth, the genital area and the rectal area.

Diphtheria

Diphtheria is caused by Corynebacterium diphtheria. The incubation period is between 2 to 5 days. The communicability period depends until virulent bacilli are no longer present usually 2 weeks but it can be as long as 4 weeks. The source of infection is the discharges from the mucous membrane of the nose and nasopharynx, skin, and other lesions of the infected person.

the transmission is through direct contact with infected person, a carrier or contaminated articles.

The signs and symptoms are low grade fever, malaise, sore throat, foul-smelling, mucopurulent nasal discharge, gray membrane on the tonsils and pharynx and lymphadenitis.

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