The prostate gland functions by secreting fluids helping the sperm to be transported. The gland is part of the reproductive system of men which surrounds the urethra located just below the bladder. When the prostate is infected, it causes swelling. It generally occurs in men, 30-50 years of age but it can also occur in the elderly.
· Acute Bacterial Prostatitis
· Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis
· Prostatodynia or pain in the prostate
· Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)
· Prostate Cancer
· Genital viruses, fungi, parasites and E. coli
· Streptococcal and staphylococcal organisms are rarely found as a causative agent
· The bacteria from previous urethral infection may have moved through the ducts of the prostate into the prostate gland.
· The infected urine moved to the glandular prostate tissue and infects it via prostatic and ejaculatory ducts.
Acute Bacterial Prostatitis Symptoms
· Urgency to urinate
· Increased urinary frequency
· Pain and burning while urinating
· Difficult to produce a normal stream
· pain in the genital area
· pain upon ejaculation
· chills and high fever
· generalized fatigue and malaise
· examination shows an enlarged, warm, tender and irregular prostate
Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis Symptoms
This is usually caused by recurred UTI. The same strain of bacteria is the cause or the infected urine flowed to the prostate area causing it to recur. Symptoms are quite the same with the acute one but less intense.
· Increased urinary frequency with difficulty and pain while urinating
· Pain in the testes, penis and lower back
· Sexual dysfunction
· Joint pains, low-grade fever and muscle aches
· Examination shows tender epididymis or testes and urethral discharge
A tender and enlarged prostate gland makes the diagnosis and treatment to start. The doctor orders for urinalysis and urine culture to determine the type of bacteria involved. An ultrasound is also done to confirm the diagnosis or to rule out abscess.
For chronic bacterial prostatitis, Meares-Stamey 3-glass test is performed where in three sets of urine samples are obtained from the patient. If the bacteria is still not detected in this test, PPMT or premassage and postmassage test is performed. Urine samples are obtained for premassage and after postmassage and are sent to laboratory for microscopic exam. A person is diagnosed of having chronic bacterial prostatitis if both bacteria are present in the blood and in the urine.
You may be given antibiotics such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and fluoroquinolones for 4 to 6 weeks. If you have fever, you are advised to admit yourself in the hospital and you will be given different medications such as cephalosporins like ampicillin and aminoglycosides like gentamycin and amikacin. The doctor may order to put a catheter if severe obstruction is found. Some men have relapse after taking full dose of antibiotics. These patients need to take a longer course of antibiotics to prevent it from recurring.