Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted pathogen associated with an increased risk for premature births, stillbirths, newborn chlamydial pneumonia and neonatal conjunctivitis.
In the nonpregnant state, Chlamydia can cause salpingitis, chronic pelvic pain, pelvic abscesses, and infertility. Diagnostic test is Chlamydia trachomatis culture.
· Bleeding after coitus or between periods
· Purulent or mucoid cervical discharge
· In the new born, pneumonia and conjunctivitis
Responsibilities of health care professionals:
· Screen the client to know if the client is high risk
· Instruct the patient in the importance of rescreening because reinfection can occur
· Instruct the patient about the medication to be consumed by the neonate
· Administer appropriate prophylaxis for the eye of the neonate
· Monitor the neonate for pneumonia signs and symptoms if at risk
· Make sure that the sexual partner of the patient is also treated
Syphilis is a chronic infectious disease caused by the bacteria Treponema pallidum. Transmission is through physical contact with lesions of syphilis, which are usually found on the skin, genitals, and on the mouth’s mucous membranes.
The infection may cause premature labor or abortion and is passed to the fetus after the 4thmonth of pregnancy as congenital syphilis.
Stages of Syphilis
· Primary Stage – most infectious stage
There is appearance of painless and ulcerative lesions produced by spirochetes at the point of entry into the body.
· Secondary Stage – highly infectious stage
The lesions appear in 3 weeks after the primary stage anywhere on the skin and mucous membranes. There is generalized lymphadenopathy.
· Tertiary Stage
Spirochetes begin to enter into the internal organs causing permanent damage. The symptoms occur 10 to 30 years after the untreated primary lesion. There is invasion of the central nervous system which causes ataxia, meningitis, general paresis and progressive mental deterioration. It causes deleterious effects to the aorta and aortic valve of the heart.
Gonorrhea is caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae which causes infection and inflammation of the mucous membranes of the genital and urinary tracts. Transmission of the disease is through sexual contact. The infection can be transmitted to newborn’s eyes upon delivery which causes blindness called opthalmia neonatorum.
Signs and Symptoms
In females, it is usually asymptomatic or no symptoms present. There is vaginal discharge, urinary frequency and sometimes pain in urination.
In males, there is fever, pelvic pain, painful urination, epididymitis with pain, swelling and tenderness.
A culture for gonorrhea should be obtained on the first prenatal visit if the infected person is pregnant. A culture should be repeated because sometimes is recurs if the patient was previously treated. The doctor must inform the patient that it is necessary to treat the partner of the patient if infection is present.
Condylomata Acuminata (venereal warts)
Venereal warts or condylomata acuminata are caused by the human papilloma virus. The infection affects the cerivix, urethra, penis, anus and scrotum. Venereal warts are transmitted by sexual contact.
Signs and Symptoms
· The infection causes to produce small to large wartlike growths on genitals
· Cervical changes may be noted because human papilloma virus as associated with cervical malignancies.